“Truth is the daughter of time”–an old proverb states, implying that over time secrets are disclosed, deceits are exposed, and the real truth becomes known. However, the saying does not always prove to be right. Sometimes, when it is beneficial, people accept or at least do not protest against even the clearest frauds which over the course of time may transform into indisputable and widely acknowledged “truth” on which history is based. One such untrue story grown to legend is the history of Richard III, who became known as Richard the Monster for the alleged murdering of his two nephews. Although facts showed that these accusations were wrong, he is still regarded as the most heinous king of England. According to one of Tey’s characters Alan Grant, historical justice was not obtained because of the political and personal biases of the historians who wrote about Richard III after his death. And also because of the oddity of human nature resenting and not willing to accept information contradicting already established believes. (more…)
Stalin is a person who’s role in history cannot be underestimated. Being a leader of the biggest country, he greatly influenced and directly shaped the course of the early twentieth century. Not surprisingly many historians’ attention was drawn to him, and many different books and articles were written about him and his life. However, there are still many blank pages left and many disputes unsettled, particularly in regard to Stalin’s early years and to the development of his personality. The main reasons for the existence of these blank pages and disputes, as it seems to me, comes from the inability of historians to avoid bias towards or against Stalin due to the very controversial nature of his decisions and actions, and also in the lack of reliable, accurate and complete primary sources due to the high efficiency of Soviet censorship. Alfred Rieber’s article “Stalin, Man of the Borderlands”, being a highly valuable work with an unusual approach, was also affected by these same problems—bias and sources’ unreliability. (more…)
Language is one of the main means of transmitting information. Of course, language does not literally transmit all the information in the original form. It rather gives, through words, enough information for people to be able to get impression about the subject and create their own picture. Language is a unique tool because it allows exchange of not only factual information and knowledge but also of thoughts, opinions and attitudes corresponding the information. And language is important because, if it was used persuasively, the thoughts, opinions, and attitudes of the author could be imposed onto the audience provoking the reaction needed for the author. Thus, language can be used not only as a tool of communication, but also as a delicate instrument of manipulation at first affecting the audience’s attitude and then provoking the desirable reaction. (more…)
The Theory of “Cultural Imperialism” Evil: Wrong and Shameful
The third part of the “Case of Contamination” essay starts with a clarification of the preservationists’ theory of a world system of capitalism, with the center in Europe and the United States, promoting and obtruding its values and views through media. The preservationists claim that media-cultural imperialism of the West manipulates, “structures consciousness”, and brainwashes minds of people through advertising, and through the messages in movies and telenovelas broadcasted all over the world. However, as Appiah states, recent studies provide information contradicting the claim. Thus, according to surveys people respond to these “cultural imports” through the prism of their cultural context. If the information received doesn’t fit their cultural insight, they will not bluntly accept it. They see what they want to see and interpret information according to their culture; or they may accept the ideas and use them for their own needs, so that the ideas may even be turned against their originators, or else they may simply reject everything.